「Suse」Linuxパッケージ管理を管理するための45のZypperコマンド


SUSE(Software and System Entwicklung(Germany)は、英語でソフトウェアとシステムの開発を意味します)Linuxは、Novellが提供するLinuxカーネルの上にあります。 SUSEは2パックで提供されます。そのうちの1つはOpenSUSEと呼ばれ、無料で利用できます(スピーチのように無料で、ワインのように無料です)。これは、最新のアプリケーションサポートが満載のコミュニティ主導のプロジェクトであり、OpenSUSELinuxの最新の安定版リリースは13.2です。

もう1つは、エンタープライズおよび本番用に特別に設計された商用LinuxディストリビューションであるSUSE LinuxEnterpriseです。 SUSE Linux Enterprise Editionには、実稼働環境に適したさまざまなエンタープライズアプリケーションと機能が付属しており、SUSE Linux EnterpriseEditionの最新の安定版リリースは12です。

SUSE Linux EnterpriseServerの詳細なインストール手順は次の場所で確認できます。

  1. Installation of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12

ZypperとYaSTは、RPM上で動作するSUSELinuxのパッケージマネージャーです。

さらに別のセットアップツールの略であるYaSTは、OpenSUSEおよびSUSE Enterpriseエディションで動作して、SUSE Linuxを管理、セットアップ、および構成するツールです。

Zypperは、SUSEをインストール、削除、および更新するためのZYppパッケージマネージャーのコマンドラインインターフェイスです。 ZYppは、ZypperとYaSTの両方に電力を供給するパッケージ管理エンジンです。

この記事では、パッケージマネージャーが実行できる他のすべてのことをインストール、更新、削除、および実行するZypperの動作を確認します。さあ…

重要:これらのコマンドはすべてシステム全体の変更を対象としているため、rootとして実行する必要があります。そうしないと、コマンドは失敗します。

Zypperの基本的なヘルプを取得する

1.オプションなしでzypperを実行すると、すべてのグローバルオプションとコマンドのリストが表示されます。

# zypper

Usage:
	zypper [--global-options]

2.「in」(インストール)などの特定のコマンドのヘルプを表示するには、以下のコマンドを実行します。

# zypper help in
OR
# zypper help install

install (in) [options] <capability|rpm_file_uri> ...

Install packages with specified capabilities or RPM files with specified
location. A capability is NAME[.ARCH][OP], where OP is one
of <, <=, =, >=, >.

  Command options:
    --from <alias|#|URI>    Select packages from the specified repository.
-r, --repo <alias|#|URI>    Load only the specified repository.
-t, --type            Type of package (package, patch, pattern, product, srcpackage).
                            Default: package.
-n, --name                  Select packages by plain name, not by capability.
-C, --capability            Select packages by capability.
-f, --force                 Install even if the item is already installed (reinstall),
                            downgraded or changes vendor or architecture.
    --oldpackage            Allow to replace a newer item with an older one.
                            Handy if you are doing a rollback. Unlike --force
                            it will not enforce a reinstall.
    --replacefiles          Install the packages even if they replace files from other,
                            already installed, packages. Default is to treat file conflicts
                            as an error. --download-as-needed disables the fileconflict check.
......

3.インストールする前に、パッケージ(たとえば、gnome-desktop)を検索します。

# zypper se gnome-desktop

Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' metadata ............................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' cache .................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' metadata ......................................................... [done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' cache ...............................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Oss' metadata ..............................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Oss' cache ...................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update' metadata ...........................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update' cache ................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss' metadata ...................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss' cache ........................................................[done]
Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...

S | Name                                  | Summary                                                   | Type      
--+---------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+-----------
  | gnome-desktop2-lang                   | Languages for package gnome-desktop2                      | package   
  | gnome-desktop2                        | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-2-17                 | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-3-10                 | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-3-devel              | The GNOME Desktop API Library -- Development Files        | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-3_0-common           | The GNOME Desktop API Library -- Common data files        | package   
  | gnome-desktop-debugsource             | Debug sources for package gnome-desktop                   | package   
  | gnome-desktop-sharp2-debugsource      | Debug sources for package gnome-desktop-sharp2            | package   
  | gnome-desktop2-debugsource            | Debug sources for package gnome-desktop2                  | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-2-17-debuginfo       | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-2-17       | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-3-10-debuginfo       | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-3-10       | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-3_0-common-debuginfo | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-3_0-common | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-2-17-debuginfo-32bit | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-2-17       | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-3-10-debuginfo-32bit | Debug information for package libgnome-desktop-3-10       | package   
  | gnome-desktop-sharp2                  | Mono bindings for libgnome-desktop                        | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-2-devel              | The GNOME Desktop API Library -- Development Files        | package   
  | gnome-desktop-lang                    | Languages for package gnome-desktop                       | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-2-17-32bit           | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
  | libgnome-desktop-3-10-32bit           | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | package   
  | gnome-desktop                         | The GNOME Desktop API Library                             | srcpackage

4.次のコマンドを使用して、パターンパッケージ(たとえばlamp_server)に関する情報を取得します。

# zypper info -t pattern lamp_server

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...


Information for pattern lamp_server:
------------------------------------
Repository: openSUSE-13.2-Update
Name: lamp_server
Version: 20141007-5.1
Arch: x86_64
Vendor: openSUSE
Installed: No
Visible to User: Yes
Summary: Web and LAMP Server
Description: 
  Software to set up a Web server that is able to serve static, dynamic, and interactive content (like a Web shop). This includes Apache HTTP Server, the database management system MySQL,
  and scripting languages such as PHP, Python, Ruby on Rails, or Perl.
Contents:

S | Name                          | Type    | Dependency
--+-------------------------------+---------+-----------
  | apache2-mod_php5              | package |           
  | php5-iconv                    | package |           
i | patterns-openSUSE-base        | package |           
i | apache2-prefork               | package |           
  | php5-dom                      | package |           
  | php5-mysql                    | package |           
i | apache2                       | package |           
  | apache2-example-pages         | package |           
  | mariadb                       | package |           
  | apache2-mod_perl              | package |           
  | php5-ctype                    | package |           
  | apache2-doc                   | package |           
  | yast2-http-server             | package |           
  | patterns-openSUSE-lamp_server | package |    

5. zypperシェルセッションを開くには、以下のコマンドを実行します。

# zypper shell
OR
# zypper sh

zypper> help
  Usage:
	zypper [--global-options]

注:Zypperシェルで「help」と入力して、グローバルオプションとコマンドのリストを取得します。

Zypperリポジトリ管理

6. zypperreposまたはzypperlrコマンドを使用して、定義されているすべてのリポジトリを一覧表示します。

# zypper repos
OR
# zypper lr

 | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh
--+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+--------
1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No     
2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes    
3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes    
4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes    
5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes    
6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | Yes     | Yes    
7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes    
8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes    
9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes    

7.テーブルにzypperURIをリストします。

# zypper lr -u

# | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh | URI                                                            
--+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------
1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No      | cd:///?devices=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-VBOX_CD-ROM_VB2-01700376    
2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/debug/distribution/13.2/repo/oss/ 
3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/debug/update/13.2/                
4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/debug/update/13.2-non-oss/        
5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.2/repo/non-oss/   
6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/distribution/13.2/repo/oss/       
7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/source/distribution/13.2/repo/oss/
8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/update/13.2/                      
9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes     | http://download.opensuse.org/update/13.2-non-oss/        

8.リポジトリの優先度を一覧表示し、優先度別に一覧表示します。

# zypper lr -P

# | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh | Priority
--+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+---------+---------
1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No      |   99    
2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes     |   99    
3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes     |   99    
4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes     |   99    
5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes     |   85    
6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | Yes     | Yes     |   99    
7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes     |   99    
8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes     |   99    
9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes     |   99    

9.コマンドzypperrefreshまたはzypperrefを使用して、zypperリポジトリを更新します。

# zypper refresh
OR
# zypper ref

Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Oss' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update' is up to date.
Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss' is up to date.
All repositories have been refreshed.

10.「repo-non-oss」と言う特定のリポジトリを更新するには、次のように入力します。

# zypper refresh repo-non-oss

Repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' is up to date.
Specified repositories have been refreshed.

11.リポジトリを強制的に更新するには、「repo-non-oss」と入力し、次のように入力します。

# zypper ref -f repo-non-oss 

Forcing raw metadata refresh
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' metadata ............................................................[done]
Forcing building of repository cache
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' cache ............................................................[done]
Specified repositories have been refreshed.

ここでは、「zyppermodifyrepo」または「zyppermr」コマンドを使用して、zypperリポジトリを無効または有効にします。

12.リポジトリを無効にする前に、Zypperでは、すべてのリポジトリに固有の番号があり、リポジトリを無効または有効にするために使用されることを知っておく必要があります。

リポジトリ「repo-oss」を無効にしたい場合、最初に無効にするには、次のコマンドを入力してその番号を無効にする必要があります。

# zypper lr

# | Alias                     | Name                               | Enabled | Refresh
--+---------------------------+------------------------------------+---------+--------
1 | openSUSE-13.2-0           | openSUSE-13.2-0                    | Yes     | No     
2 | repo-debug                | openSUSE-13.2-Debug                | Yes     | Yes    
3 | repo-debug-update         | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug         | No      | Yes    
4 | repo-debug-update-non-oss | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Debug-Non-Oss | No      | Yes    
5 | repo-non-oss              | openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss              | Yes     | Yes    
6 | repo-oss                  | openSUSE-13.2-Oss                  | No      | Yes    
7 | repo-source               | openSUSE-13.2-Source               | No      | Yes    
8 | repo-update               | openSUSE-13.2-Update               | Yes     | Yes    
9 | repo-update-non-oss       | openSUSE-13.2-Update-Non-Oss       | Yes     | Yes    

上記の出力で、リポジトリ「repo-oss」の番号が6であることがわかりますか。これを無効にするには、次のコマンドとともに番号6を指定する必要があります。

# zypper mr -d 6

Repository 'repo-oss' has been successfully disabled.

13.同じリポジトリ「repo-oss」を再度有効にします。これは6番に表示されます(上記の例を参照)。

# zypper mr -e 6

Repository 'repo-oss' has been successfully enabled.

14.レポの自動更新とrpmファイルの「キャッシュ」を有効にして「repo-non-oss」と言い、優先度を85と設定します。

# zypper mr -rk -p 85 repo-non-oss

Repository 'repo-non-oss' priority has been left unchanged (85)
Nothing to change for repository 'repo-non-oss'.

15.すべてのリポジトリのrpmファイルキャッシュを無効にします。

# zypper mr -Ka

RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-source'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.

16.すべてのリポジトリでrpmファイルのキャッシュを有効にします。

# zypper mr -ka

RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-source'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.

17.リモートリポジトリのrpmファイルキャッシュを無効にします。

# zypper mr -Kt

RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-source'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update'.
RPM files caching has been disabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.

18.リモートリポジトリのrpmファイルキャッシュを有効にします。

# zypper mr -kt

RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-debug-update-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-non-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-oss'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-source'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update'.
RPM files caching has been enabled for repository 'repo-update-non-oss'.

「zypperaddrepo」または「zypperar」の2つのコマンドのいずれかを使用できます。リポジトリのURLまたはエイリアスを使用してリポジトリを追加できます。

19.「http://download.opensuse.org/update/12.3/」というリポジトリを追加します。

# zypper ar http://download.opensuse.org/update/11.1/ update

Adding repository 'update' .............................................................................................................................................................[done]
Repository 'update' successfully added
Enabled     : Yes                                      
Autorefresh : No                                       
GPG check   : Yes                                      
URI         : http://download.opensuse.org/update/11.1/

20.リポジトリの名前を変更します。エイリアスのみを変更します。コマンド「zyppernamerepo」または「zyppernr」を使用できます。番号10(zypper lr)に表示されるリポジトリの別名changeエイリアスの名前をupd8に変更するには、以下のコマンドを実行します。

# zypper nr 10 upd8

Repository 'update' renamed to 'upd8'.

21.リポジトリを削除します。システムからリポジトリが削除されます。コマンド「zypperremoverepo」または「zypperrr」を使用できます。 「upd8」などのリポジトリを削除するには、以下のコマンドを実行します。

# zypper rr upd8

# Removing repository 'upd8' .........................................................................................[done]
Repository 'upd8' has been removed.

Zypperを使用したパッケージ管理

22. Zypperを使用すると、機能名に基づいてパッケージをインストールできます。たとえば、機能名を使用してパッケージ(Mozilla Firefoxなど)をインストールします。

# zypper in MozillaFirefox

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 128 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  adwaita-icon-theme at-spi2-atk-common at-spi2-atk-gtk2 at-spi2-core cantarell-fonts cups-libs desktop-file-utils fontconfig gdk-pixbuf-query-loaders gstreamer gstreamer-fluendo-mp3 
  gstreamer-plugins-base gtk2-branding-openSUSE gtk2-data gtk2-immodule-amharic gtk2-immodule-inuktitut gtk2-immodule-thai gtk2-immodule-vietnamese gtk2-metatheme-adwaita 
  gtk2-theming-engine-adwaita gtk2-tools gtk3-data gtk3-metatheme-adwaita gtk3-tools hicolor-icon-theme hicolor-icon-theme-branding-openSUSE libasound2 libatk-1_0-0 libatk-bridge-2_0-0 
  libatspi0 libcairo2 libcairo-gobject2 libcanberra0 libcanberra-gtk0 libcanberra-gtk2-module libcanberra-gtk3-0 libcanberra-gtk3-module libcanberra-gtk-module-common libcdda_interface0 
  libcdda_paranoia0 libcolord2 libdrm2 libdrm_intel1 libdrm_nouveau2 libdrm_radeon1 libFLAC8 libfreebl3 libgbm1 libgdk_pixbuf-2_0-0 libgraphite2-3 libgstapp-1_0-0 libgstaudio-1_0-0 
  libgstpbutils-1_0-0 libgstreamer-1_0-0 libgstriff-1_0-0 libgsttag-1_0-0 libgstvideo-1_0-0 libgthread-2_0-0 libgtk-2_0-0 libgtk-3-0 libharfbuzz0 libjasper1 libjbig2 libjpeg8 libjson-c2 
  liblcms2-2 libLLVM libltdl7 libnsssharedhelper0 libogg0 liborc-0_4-0 libpackagekit-glib2-18 libpango-1_0-0 libpciaccess0 libpixman-1-0 libpulse0 libsndfile1 libsoftokn3 libspeex1 
  libsqlite3-0 libstartup-notification-1-0 libtheoradec1 libtheoraenc1 libtiff5 libvisual libvorbis0 libvorbisenc2 libvorbisfile3 libwayland-client0 libwayland-cursor0 libwayland-server0 
  libX11-xcb1 libxcb-dri2-0 libxcb-dri3-0 libxcb-glx0 libxcb-present0 libxcb-render0 libxcb-shm0 libxcb-sync1 libxcb-util1 libxcb-xfixes0 libXcomposite1 libXcursor1 libXdamage1 libXevie1 
  libXfixes3 libXft2 libXi6 libXinerama1 libxkbcommon-0_4_3 libXrandr2 libXrender1 libxshmfence1 libXtst6 libXv1 libXxf86vm1 Mesa Mesa-libEGL1 Mesa-libGL1 Mesa-libglapi0 
  metatheme-adwaita-common MozillaFirefox MozillaFirefox-branding-openSUSE mozilla-nss mozilla-nss-certs PackageKit-gstreamer-plugin pango-tools sound-theme-freedesktop 

The following 10 recommended packages were automatically selected:
  gstreamer-fluendo-mp3 gtk2-branding-openSUSE gtk2-data gtk2-immodule-amharic gtk2-immodule-inuktitut gtk2-immodule-thai gtk2-immodule-vietnamese libcanberra0 libpulse0 
  PackageKit-gstreamer-plugin 

128 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 77.2 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 200.0 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
Retrieving package cantarell-fonts-0.0.16-1.1.noarch                                                                                                   (1/128),  74.1 KiB (115.6 KiB unpacked)
Retrieving: cantarell-fonts-0.0.16-1.1.noarch.rpm .........................................................................................................................[done (63.4 KiB/s)]
Retrieving package hicolor-icon-theme-0.13-2.1.2.noarch                                                                                                (2/128),  40.1 KiB ( 50.5 KiB unpacked)
Retrieving: hicolor-icon-theme-0.13-2.1.2.noarch.rpm ...................................................................................................................................[done]
Retrieving package sound-theme-freedesktop-0.8-7.1.2.noarch                                                                                            (3/128), 372.6 KiB (460.3 KiB unpacked)

23.バージョンを使用してパッケージ(gccなど)をインストールします。

# zypper in 'gcc<5.1'

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 13 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 libitm1-gcc49 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libtsan0-gcc49 

13 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 14.5 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 49.4 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y

24.アーキテクチャ(たとえばi586)のパッケージ(たとえばgcc)をインストールします。

# zypper in gcc.i586

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 13 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 libitm1-gcc49 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libtsan0-gcc49 

13 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 14.5 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 49.4 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
Retrieving package libasan0-4.8.3+r212056-2.2.4.x86_64                                                                                                  (1/13),  74.2 KiB (166.9 KiB unpacked)
Retrieving: libasan0-4.8.3+r212056-2.2.4.x86_64.rpm .......................................................................................................................[done (79.2 KiB/s)]
Retrieving package libatomic1-gcc49-4.9.0+r211729-2.1.7.x86_64                                                                                          (2/13),  14.3 KiB ( 26.1 KiB unpacked)
Retrieving: libatomic1-gcc49-4.9.0+r211729-2.1.7.x86_64.rpm ...............................................................................................................[done (55.3 KiB/s)]

25.特定のアーキテクチャ(たとえばi586)および特定のバージョン(たとえば<5.1)のパッケージ(たとえばgcc)をインストールします。

# zypper in 'gcc.i586<5.1'

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 13 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 libitm1-gcc49 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libtsan0-gcc49 

13 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 14.4 MiB. Already cached: 129.5 KiB  After the operation, additional 49.4 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
In cache libasan0-4.8.3+r212056-2.2.4.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                        (1/13),  74.2 KiB (166.9 KiB unpacked)
In cache libatomic1-gcc49-4.9.0+r211729-2.1.7.x86_64.rpm                                           (2/13),  14.3 KiB ( 26.1 KiB unpacked)
In cache libgomp1-gcc49-4.9.0+r211729-2.1.7.x86_64.rpm                                             (3/13),  41.1 KiB ( 90.7 KiB unpacked)

26.リポジトリ(amarok)からパッケージ(たとえばlibxine)をインストールします。

# zypper in amarok upd:libxine1

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...
The following 202 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  amarok bundle-lang-kde-en clamz cups-libs enscript fontconfig gdk-pixbuf-query-loaders ghostscript-fonts-std gptfdisk gstreamer gstreamer-plugins-base hicolor-icon-theme 
  hicolor-icon-theme-branding-openSUSE htdig hunspell hunspell-tools icoutils ispell ispell-american kde4-filesystem kdebase4-runtime kdebase4-runtime-branding-openSUSE kdelibs4 
  kdelibs4-branding-openSUSE kdelibs4-core kdialog libakonadi4 l
.....

27.名前(-n)を使用してパッケージ(たとえばgit)をインストールします。

# zypper in -n git

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 35 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  cvs cvsps fontconfig git git-core git-cvs git-email git-gui gitk git-svn git-web libserf-1-1 libsqlite3-0 libXft2 libXrender1 libXss1 perl-Authen-SASL perl-Clone perl-DBD-SQLite perl-DBI 
  perl-Error perl-IO-Socket-SSL perl-MLDBM perl-Net-Daemon perl-Net-SMTP-SSL perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Params-Util perl-PlRPC perl-SQL-Statement perl-Term-ReadKey subversion subversion-perl tcl 
  tk xhost 

The following 13 recommended packages were automatically selected:
  git-cvs git-email git-gui gitk git-svn git-web perl-Authen-SASL perl-Clone perl-MLDBM perl-Net-Daemon perl-Net-SMTP-SSL perl-PlRPC perl-SQL-Statement 

The following package is suggested, but will not be installed:
  git-daemon 

35 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 15.6 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 56.7 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y

28.ワイルドカードを使用してパッケージをインストールします。たとえば、すべてのphp5パッケージをインストールします。

# zypper in php5*

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

Problem: php5-5.6.1-18.1.x86_64 requires smtp_daemon, but this requirement cannot be provided
  uninstallable providers: exim-4.83-3.1.8.x86_64[openSUSE-13.2-0]
                   postfix-2.11.0-5.2.2.x86_64[openSUSE-13.2-0]
                   sendmail-8.14.9-2.2.2.x86_64[openSUSE-13.2-0]
                   exim-4.83-3.1.8.i586[repo-oss]
                   msmtp-mta-1.4.32-2.1.3.i586[repo-oss]
                   postfix-2.11.0-5.2.2.i586[repo-oss]
                   sendmail-8.14.9-2.2.2.i586[repo-oss]
                   exim-4.83-3.1.8.x86_64[repo-oss]
                   msmtp-mta-1.4.32-2.1.3.x86_64[repo-oss]
                   postfix-2.11.0-5.2.2.x86_64[repo-oss]
                   sendmail-8.14.9-2.2.2.x86_64[repo-oss]
                   postfix-2.11.3-5.5.1.i586[repo-update]
                   postfix-2.11.3-5.5.1.x86_64[repo-update]
 Solution 1: Following actions will be done:
  do not install php5-5.6.1-18.1.x86_64
  do not install php5-pear-Auth_SASL-1.0.6-7.1.3.noarch
  do not install php5-pear-Horde_Http-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
  do not install php5-pear-Horde_Image-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
  do not install php5-pear-Horde_Kolab_Format-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
  do not install php5-pear-Horde_Ldap-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
  do not install php5-pear-Horde_Memcache-2.0.1-7.1.3.noarch
  do not install php5-pear-Horde_Mime-2.0.2-6.1.3.noarch
  do not install php5-pear-Horde_Oauth-2.0.0-6.1.3.noarch
  do not install php5-pear-Horde_Pdf-2.0.1-6.1.3.noarch
....

29.パターン(パッケージのグループ)を使用してパッケージ(たとえばlamp_server)をインストールします。

# zypper in -t pattern lamp_server

ading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 29 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  apache2 apache2-doc apache2-example-pages apache2-mod_perl apache2-prefork patterns-openSUSE-lamp_server perl-Data-Dump perl-Encode-Locale perl-File-Listing perl-HTML-Parser 
  perl-HTML-Tagset perl-HTTP-Cookies perl-HTTP-Daemon perl-HTTP-Date perl-HTTP-Message perl-HTTP-Negotiate perl-IO-HTML perl-IO-Socket-SSL perl-libwww-perl perl-Linux-Pid 
  perl-LWP-MediaTypes perl-LWP-Protocol-https perl-Net-HTTP perl-Net-SSLeay perl-Tie-IxHash perl-TimeDate perl-URI perl-WWW-RobotRules yast2-http-server 

The following NEW pattern is going to be installed:
  lamp_server 

The following 10 recommended packages were automatically selected:
  apache2 apache2-doc apache2-example-pages apache2-mod_perl apache2-prefork perl-Data-Dump perl-IO-Socket-SSL perl-LWP-Protocol-https perl-TimeDate yast2-http-server 

29 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 7.2 MiB. Already cached: 1.2 MiB  After the operation, additional 34.7 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): 

30.パッケージ(たとえばnano)をインストールし、パッケージ(たとえばvi)を一度に削除します。

# zypper in nano -vi

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
'-vi' not found in package names. Trying capabilities.
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 2 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  nano nano-lang 

The following package is going to be REMOVED:
  vim 

The following recommended package was automatically selected:
  nano-lang 

2 new packages to install, 1 to remove.
Overall download size: 550.0 KiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, 463.3 KiB will be freed.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): 
...

31. rpmパッケージをインストールします(たとえば、teamviewer)。

# zypper in teamviewer*.rpm

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 24 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  alsa-oss-32bit fontconfig-32bit libasound2-32bit libexpat1-32bit libfreetype6-32bit libgcc_s1-gcc49-32bit libICE6-32bit libjpeg62-32bit libpng12-0-32bit libpng16-16-32bit libSM6-32bit 
  libuuid1-32bit libX11-6-32bit libXau6-32bit libxcb1-32bit libXdamage1-32bit libXext6-32bit libXfixes3-32bit libXinerama1-32bit libXrandr2-32bit libXrender1-32bit libXtst6-32bit 
  libz1-32bit teamviewer 

The following recommended package was automatically selected:
  alsa-oss-32bit 

24 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 41.2 MiB. Already cached: 0 B  After the operation, additional 119.7 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): 
..

32.パッケージを削除するには、「zypperremove」または「zypperrm」コマンドを使用できます。たとえば、パッケージ(apache2など)を削除するには、次のコマンドを実行します。

# zypper remove apache2
Or
# zypper rm apache2

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 2 packages are going to be REMOVED:
  apache2 apache2-prefork 

2 packages to remove.
After the operation, 4.2 MiB will be freed.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
(1/2) Removing apache2-2.4.10-19.1 ........................................................................[done]
(2/2) Removing apache2-prefork-2.4.10-19.1 ................................................................[done]

33.すべてのパッケージを更新します。コマンド「zypperupdate」または「zypperup」を使用できます。

# zypper up
OR
# zypper update

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Nothing to do.

34.特定のパッケージを更新します(apache2やopensshなど)。

# zypper up apache2 openssh

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
No update candidate for 'apache2-2.4.10-19.1.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
No update candidate for 'openssh-6.6p1-5.1.3.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
Resolving package dependencies...

Nothing to do.

35.パッケージをインストールします。インストールされていない場合は(mariadb)、インストールされている場合は更新します。

# zypper in mariadb

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
'mariadb' is already installed.
No update candidate for 'mariadb-10.0.13-2.6.1.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
Resolving package dependencies...

Nothing to do.

「zyppersource-install」または「zyppersi」コマンドを使用して、ソースからパッケージをビルドできます。

36.ソースパッケージをインストールし、パッケージ(たとえば、mariadb)の依存関係を構築します。

# zypper si mariadb

Reading installed packages...
Loading repository data...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 36 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  autoconf automake bison cmake cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 gcc48-c++ gcc-c++ libaio-devel libarchive13 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libedit-devel libevent-devel libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 
  libitm1-gcc49 libltdl7 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libopenssl-devel libstdc++48-devel libtool libtsan0-gcc49 m4 make ncurses-devel pam-devel readline-devel site-config tack tcpd-devel zlib-devel 

The following source package is going to be installed:
  mariadb 

36 new packages to install, 1 source package.
Overall download size: 71.5 MiB. Already cached: 129.5 KiB  After the operation, additional 183.9 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y

37.パッケージのソースのみをインストールします(たとえば、mariadb)。

# zypper in -D mariadb

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
'mariadb' is already installed.
No update candidate for 'mariadb-10.0.13-2.6.1.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
Resolving package dependencies...

Nothing to do.

38.パッケージ(たとえば、mariadb)のビルド依存関係のみをインストールします。

# zypper si -d mariadb

Reading installed packages...
Loading repository data...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following 36 NEW packages are going to be installed:
  autoconf automake bison cmake cpp cpp48 gcc gcc48 gcc48-c++ gcc-c++ libaio-devel libarchive13 libasan0 libatomic1-gcc49 libcloog-isl4 libedit-devel libevent-devel libgomp1-gcc49 libisl10 
  libitm1-gcc49 libltdl7 libmpc3 libmpfr4 libopenssl-devel libstdc++48-devel libtool libtsan0-gcc49 m4 make ncurses-devel pam-devel readline-devel site-config tack tcpd-devel zlib-devel 

The following package is recommended, but will not be installed due to conflicts or dependency issues:
  readline-doc 

36 new packages to install.
Overall download size: 33.7 MiB. Already cached: 129.5 KiB  After the operation, additional 144.3 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y

39.ユーザーの操作なしでパッケージ(たとえばmariadb)をインストールします。

# zypper --non-interactive in mariadb

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
'mariadb' is already installed.
No update candidate for 'mariadb-10.0.13-2.6.1.x86_64'. The highest available version is already installed.
Resolving package dependencies...

Nothing to do.

40.ユーザーの操作なしでパッケージ(たとえばmariadb)を削除します。

# zypper --non-interactive rm mariadb

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

The following package is going to be REMOVED:
  mariadb 

1 package to remove.
After the operation, 71.8 MiB will be freed.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): y
(1/1) Removing mariadb-10.0.13-2.6.1 .............................................................................[done]

41.xmlでzypperを出力します。

# zypper --xmlout



  Usage:
	zypper [--global-options] <command> [--command-options] [arguments]

  Global Options
....

42.インストール時に静かな出力を生成します。

# zypper --quiet in mariadb

The following NEW package is going to be installed:
  mariadb 

1 new package to install.
Overall download size: 0 B. Already cached: 7.8 MiB  After the operation, additional 71.8 MiB will be used.
Continue? [y/n/? shows all options] (y): 
...

43.UNインストール時に静かな出力を生成します。

# zypper --quiet rm mariadb

44.ライセンス/契約に自動同意します。

# zypper patch --auto-agree-with-licenses

Loading repository data...
Reading installed packages...
Resolving package dependencies...

Nothing to do.

45. zypperキャッシュのみをクリーンアップする場合は、次のコマンドを使用できます。

# zypper clean

All repositories have been cleaned up.

メタデータとパッケージキャッシュを一度にクリーンアップする場合は、zypperとして–all/-aを渡すことができます。

# zypper clean -a

All repositories have been cleaned up.

46. zypperを介してインストール、更新、または削除されたパッケージのログを表示するには、/ var/log/zypp/historyにログインします。表示するためにそれをcatするか、カスタム出力を取得するためにフィルターを使用することができます。

# cat /var/log/zypp/history

2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|boost-license1_54_0|1.54.0-10.1.3|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|0523b909d2aae5239f9841316dafaf3a37b4f096|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|branding-openSUSE|13.2-3.6.1|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|6609def94b1987bf3f90a9467f4f7ab8f8d98a5c|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|bundle-lang-common-en|13.2-3.3.1|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|ca55694e6fdebee6ce37ac7cf3725e2aa6edc342|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|insserv-compat|0.1-12.2.2|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|6160de7fbf961a279591a83a1550093a581214d9|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|libX11-data|1.6.2-5.1.2|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|f1cb58364ba9016c1f93b1a383ba12463c56885a|
2015-05-07 15:43:03|install|libnl-config|3.2.25-2.1.2|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|aab2ded312a781e93b739b418e3d32fe4e187020|
2015-05-07 15:43:04|install|wireless-regdb|2014.06.13-1.2|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|be8cb16f3e92af12b5ceb977e37e13f03c007bd1|
2015-05-07 15:43:04|install|yast2-trans-en_US|3.1.0-2.1|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|1865754e5e0ec3c149ac850b340bcca55a3c404d|
2015-05-07 15:43:04|install|yast2-trans-stats|2.19.0-16.1.3|noarch||openSUSE-13.2-0|b107d2b3e702835885b57b04d12d25539f262d1a|
2015-05-07 15:43:04|install|cracklib-dict-full|2.8.12-64.1.2|x86_64||openSUSE-13.2-0|08bd45dbba7ad44e3a4837f730be76f55ad5dcfa|
......

47. zypperコマンドで「dist-upgrade」オプションを使用して、現在のSuseLinuxを最新バージョンにアップグレードできます。

# zypper dist-upgrade

You are about to do a distribution upgrade with all enabled repositories. Make sure these repositories are compatible before you continue. See 'man zypper' for more information about this command.
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-0' cache .....................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' metadata ............................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Debug' cache .................................................................[done]
Retrieving repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' metadata ..........................................................[done]
Building repository 'openSUSE-13.2-Non-Oss' cache ...............................................................[done]

それは今のところすべてです。この記事が、特に初心者向けのSUSEシステムとサーバーの管理に役立つことを願っています。私が特定のコマンドを残したと感じた場合(人間が間違っている)、記事を更新できるようにコメントでフィードバックを提供することができます。接続を維持し、コメントを続け、お楽しみに。称賛!